Journal Papers

  1. Chipango, EF and To, LS (2024) When sustainable development competes with African Ubuntu: A case study, Geoforum, 154, pp.104073-104073, ISSN: 0016-7185. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2024.104073.
  2. Mwale, V, Blanchard, R, Ngonda, T, Nkhoma, R, Ogunna, C, To, LS (2024) The Quest for Resilient Sustainable Development and Low-Carbon Energy Transitions: Investigating the Challenges and Success Factors for Mini-Grids in Malawi, Sustainability, 16(12), pp.5060-5060, DOI: 10.3390/su16125060.
  3. Hodgkins, R, To, LS, Matthews, T (2024) The IPCC reports and HE Geography: opportunities lost and found, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, ISSN: 0309-8265. DOI: 10.1080/03098265.2024.2333293.
  4. Mwale, VD, To, LS, Gogoda, C, Ngonda, T, Nkhoma, R (2024) Community resilience in Bondo community, Southern Malawi: balancing energy, water and biodiversity, International Journal of Energy Sector Management, ISSN: 1750-6220. DOI: 10.1108/ijesm-10-2023-0007.
  5. Li, J, Foden, GW, Chow, SKW, To, LS (2024) Integrating sustainable and energy-resilient strategies into emergency shelter design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 191, pp.113968-113968, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2023.113968.
  6. Cannone, C, Allington, L, Cervantes Barron, K, Charbonnier, F, Zachau Walker, M, Halloran, C, Yeganyan, R, Tan, N, Cullen, JM, Harrison, J, To, LS, Howells, M (2023) Designing a zero-order energy transition model: How to create a new Starter Data Kit, MethodsX, 10, pp.102120-102120, ISSN: 2215-0161. DOI: 10.1016/j.mex.2023.102120.
  7. Mulualem, GG, Cuvilas, C, Zalengera, C, To, LS, Baptista, I, Robin, E, Bekele, G, Howe, L, Shenga, C, Macucule, DA, Kirshner, J, Mulugetta, Y, Power, M, Robinson, S, Jones, D, Broto, VC (2022) Delivering an off-grid transition to sustainable energy in Ethiopia and MozambiqueEnergy, Sustainability and Society, 12(1), ARTN 23, ISSN: 2192-0567.
  8. Allington, L, Cannone, C, Pappis, I, Barron, KC, Usher, W, Pye, S, Brown, E, Howells, M, Walker, MZ, Ahsan, A, Charbonnier, F, Halloran, C, Hirmer, S, Cronin, J, Taliotis, C, Sundin, C, Sridharan, V, Ramos, E, Brinkerink, M, Deane, P, Gritsevskyi, A, Moura, G, Rouget, A, Wogan, D, Barcelona, E, Niet, T, Rogner, H, Bock, F, Quirós-Tortós, J, Angulo-Paniagua, J, Krishnamurthy, S, Harrison, J, To, LS (2022) Selected ‘Starter kit’ energy system modelling data for selected countries in Africa, East Asia, and South America (#CCG, 2021)Data in Brief, 42, 108021, ISSN: 2352-3409.
  9. Wang, X, Reardon, L, To, LS (2022) Visualizing Nepal’s electricity supply resilience from a whole-systems perspective: A participatory approach, Energy Research & Social Science, 85, 102409-102409.
  10. To, L.S., Bruce, A., Munro, P., Santagata, E., MacGill, I., Rawali, M., Raturi, A. (2021) A research and innovation agenda for energy resilience in Pacific Island Countries and TerritoriesNature Energy.
  11. Zalengera, C., Chitawo, M.L., Chitedze, I., To, L.S., Mwale, V., Gondwe, K.T., Maroyi, T. (2021) Unbending the Winding Path of a Low-Income Country’s Energy Sector amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives from Malawi, Energies, 14, 7184.
  12. Mujjuni, F., Betts, T., To, L.S., Blanchard, R. (2021) Resilience a means to development: A resilience assessment framework and a catalogue of indicators, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 152, 111684.
  13. Bisaga, I. & To, L.S. (2021), Funding and Delivery Models for Modern Energy Cooking Services in Displacement Settings: A Review, Energies 14, 4176.
  14. Bharadwaj, B., Pullar, D., To, L.S. & Leary, J. (2021) Why firewood? Exploring the co-benefits, socio-ecological interactions and indigenous knowledge surrounding cooking practice in rural Nepal, Energy Research and Social Science, 75, 101932.
  15. Bisaga, I., Parikh, P., Tomei, J. & To, L.S. (2021), Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the sustainable development goals: A case study of off-grid solar energy in Rwanda, Energy Policy, 149, 112028.
  16. Ng, K.S., & To, L.S. (2020), A Systems Thinking Approach to Stimulating and Enhancing Resource Efficiency and Circularity in Households, Journal of Cleaner Production, 275, 123038.
  17. Zalengera, C., To, L.S., Sieff, R., Mohr, A., Eales, A., Cloke, J., Buckland, H., Brown, E., Blanchard, R. & Batchelor, S. (2020) Decentralization: The key to accelerating access to distributed energy services in sub-Saharan Africa?, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences.
  18. Carrero, R., Acuto, M., Tzachor, A., Subedi, N., Campbell, B. & To, L.S. (2019), Tacit networks, crucial care: Informal networks and disaster response in Nepal’s 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Urban Studies, 56, 561–577.
  19. To, L.S., Seebaluck, V. & Leach, M. (2018), ‘Future energy transitions for bagasse cogeneration: lessons from multi-level and policy innovations in Mauritius’, Energy Research & Social Science, 35, 68-77.
  20. Fuso Nerini, F., Tomei, J., To, L.S., Bisaga, I., Parikh, P., Black, M., Borrion, A., Spataru, C., Castan Broto, V., Anandarajah, G., Milligan, B., & Mulugetta, Y. (2018), ‘Mapping synergies and trade-offs between Energy and the Sustainable Development Goals’, Nature Energy, 3, 10-15.
  21. Brown, E., Campbell, B., Cloke, J., To, L.S., Turner, B. and Wray, A. (2018), ‘Low carbon energy and international development: from research impact to policymaking’, Contemporary Social Science, 13, 112–127.
  22. To, L.S., Kwapata, K., Masala, L., Alonso Navarro, V., Batchelor, S., Mulugetta, Y., Barnett, A. and Karekezi, S. (2017) ‘Policy perspectives on expanding cogeneration from bagasse in Malawi’, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 28, 45-53.
  23. Castan Broto, V., Stevens, L., Ackom, E., Tomei, J., Parikh, P., Bisaga, I., To, L.S., Krishner, J. & Mulugetta, Y. (2017), ‘A research agenda for a people-centred approach to energy access in the urbanising global south’, Nature Energy, 2, 776-779.
  24. Francisco, G., Harcourt, W., Farhar, B.C., Osnes, B., Karve, P., To, L.S., Speer, N., Sweetman, C., (2012) ‘Views, events, and debates’. Gender & Development 20, 607–621.

Book chapters

  1. Vallecha, H and To, LS (2024) Community Energy and Community Resilience: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. In V, CB (ed) Community Energy and Sustainable Energy Transitions Experiences from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique, Springer Nature, pp.23-44, ISBN: 9783031579387.
  2. Brown, E, Campbell, B, Cloke, J, Cook, J, Batchelor, S, To, LS (2022) Low carbon energy for development network (LCEDN). In Hantrais, L (ed) How to Manage International Multidisciplinary Research Projects, Edward Elgar, pp.137-149, ISBN: 9781802204711. DOI: 10.4337/9781802204728.00019.
  3. Tomei, J and To, LS (2021) Access to energy: the contribution of the social sciences to delivering energy equity and justice. In Webb, J, Wade, F, Tingey, M (ed) Research Handbook on Energy and Society, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.126-140, ISBN: 9781839100710.
  4. To, LS (2020) ‘Community energy resilience for a new climate urbanism‘. In Castán Broto, V, Robin, E, While, A (ed) Climate Urbanism: Towards a Critical Research Agenda, 213-226, Palgrave Macmillan.
  5. To, L.S., and N. Subedi (2020) ‘Towards Community Energy Resilience’. In Energy Access and Forced Migration, edited by Grafham, O., 83–93. London: Routledge.


  1. Bisaga, I, Campbell, K, Bellanca, R, Kleijn, M, To, LS (2022) Clean and modern energy for cooking: A path to food security and sustainable development, World Food Programme & Modern Energy Cooking Services Programme.
  2. Bisaga, I. & To, L.S. (2021), Clean cooking in refugee camps and COVID-19: what lessons can we learn?, Modern Energy Cooking Services Programme, Loughborough University.
  3. Tran, A., To, L.S. and Bisaga, I. (2021) Landscape Analysis of Modern Energy Cooking In Displacement Settings, Modern Energy Cooking Services Programme, Loughborough University.
  4. Small, D, Nicholls, A, Jeffrey, T, Bruce, A, MacGill, I, Munro, P, Raturi, A, Rawali, M, To, LS (2020) Workshop background paper: Energy resilience in Pacific Island Countries and Territories, University of New South Wales, University of the South Pacific, University of Papua New Guinea and Loughborough University.
  5. Zalengera, C., Chitedze, I., To, L.S., Chitawo, M., Mwale, V., Maroyi, T. (2020). Impacts and Coping Mechanisms for the Covid-19 Pandemic in Malawi’s Energy Sector, EEG Energy Insight. Energy and Economic Growth Applied Research Programme, Oxford.
  6. Dvorakova, V., Hara, C. M., Perrett, A., Reardon, L., To, L.S., Trace, S. and Wang, X. (2020) Community Energy Resilience and Electricity Systems: Workshops Report, Low Carbon Energy for Development Network & Energy and Economic Growth Applied Research Programme, Oxford.
  7. Leary, J., To, L.S., Alsop, A. (2018) Is there still a role for small wind in rural electrification programmes?, LCEDN Briefing Paper. Low Carbon Energy for Development Network, Loughborough.
  8. To, LS and Tarazona, M (2018) Developing a research agenda for community energy resilience in the electricity sector, Energy Insights, Energy and Economic Growth Programme.
  9. Bagley, C., Brown, E., Campbell, B., Cloke, J., Cameron, S., Collings, S., Gunning, R., Kabell, H., McDonnell, J., To, L.S., and Turner, B. (2018), Mapping the UK Research & Innovation Landscape: Energy & Development, Low Carbon Energy for Development Network, Loughborough.
  10. Scott, A., Worrall, L., Hornberg, J., To, L.S. (2017) How solar household systems contribute to resilience, Working Paper 528, Overseas Development Institute, London.
  11. To, L.S. (2009), Solar Home System Basic Maintenance and Repair Training Workbook, Rural Integrated Development Service Nepal, Kathmandu.
  12. To, L.S. (2007), ACT Energy Wise Interim Data Analysis Report: January 2005-September 2006, Energy Strategies, Canberra.

Selected Conference Papers

  1. To, L.S. (2021) Applying the United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) to Solar Energy. In Asia Pacific Solar Research Conference, Sydney.
  2. To, L.S. (2021) How community energy resilience can ensure economic development. In Zero Emissions Solutions Conference, Online.
  3. To, L.S., Bruce, A, MacGill, I, Munro, P, Raturi, A (2020) Energy resilience and disasters in the South Pacific: political economy dynamics, community responses and planning. In the Second Urban Resilience Asia Pacific Conference – URAP2, Online.
  4. To, L.S. (2019) Community energy resilience in the era of climate change. In Climate Urbanism: an international workshop on the changing relationship between cities and climate change, University of Sheffield.
  5. To, L.S. (2019) Research collaborations on community energy resilience and electricity systems in Southern Africa. In Low Carbon Energy for Development Network Annual Conference, University of Strathclyde.
  6. To, L.S. (2018) Community Energy resilience in low-income countries. In UKERC Annual Assembly 2018, University of Sheffield.
  7. To, L.S., Cloke, J, Mohr, A (2017) Low Carbon Energy for Development Network – Experiences with Humanitarian Energy. RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, London.
  8. To L.S., Kwapata K, Kathabwalika D, Mulugetta Y, Leach M, Karekezi S, Barnett A, Batchelor S. (2015) ‘Policy Perspectives on Clean Energy and the Sugar Industry in Malawi’. International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change. Mauritius.
  9. To L.S., Karekezi S, Barnett A, Batchelor S, Mulugetta Y, Leach M, Kwapata K. (2014) ‘Agro-Industries and Clean Energy in Africa’. 4th Conference on Climate Change and Development in Africa. Marrakech, Morocco
  10. To, L.S., Zahnd A, and Riek R (2012). ‘Building Capacity for Solar Photovoltaics in Rural Nepal.’ World Renewable Energy Forum. Colorado, USA.
  11.   To, L. S. (2008) ‘Monitoring and Evaluation of PV Programs in Rural Areas in the Asia-Pacific Region’. 3rd International Solar Energy Society Conference, Asia Pacific Region/ 43rd ANZSES Annual Conference. Sydney, Australia.
  12. Basnet, S., To L.S., et al. (2008). ‘UNSW PV Projects in Nepal’. 3rd International Solar Energy Society Conference, Asia Pacific Region/ 43rd ANZSES Annual Conference. Sydney, Australia.
  13. To, L.S. (2007), ‘Approaches to Using Renewable Energy in Rural Areas of China’, International Solar Energy Society Solar World Congress, Beijing, China, 18-21 September
  14. To L.S., Watt M. & Stapleton G. (2006), ‘Photovoltaics in Remote Indigenous Australian Communities: An Assessment of the Bushlight Community Energy Planning Model’, in A. A. M. Sayigh (ed) Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress IX, Florence, Italy, 19-25 August.


  1. To, L.S. (2015), Renewable Energy Projects in Rural China – A Systemic Capacity Approach, PhD thesis, University of New South Wales.
  2. To, L.S. (2005), PV in Remote Indigenous Australian Communities: An Assessment of the Bushlight Community Energy Planning Model, Undergraduate thesis, University of New South Wales.